A Primer on the Persistent Myth of “Pope Joan”

Dude (looks like a lady).

Have you heard that the Catholic Church is covering up the existence of a female pope? Don’t worry, if you haven’t yet, you will be hearing a lot about that in the coming months. I did a lot of research on this subject, including spending time in Rome tracking down various claims contained in this legend, and I can assure you that there never was a Pope Joan.

It’s worth your time, though, to become familiar with the basic claims of this legend because, as I say, you will be hearing your friends and family and the world at large chattering about it — much like you heard all the crazed (and wildly inaccurate) chattering about the Catholic Church in The Da Vinci Code, through the book and the movie by that name. So here is the basic outline of the myth. Please share this info with your family and friends. Inoculate them.

The legend of Pope Joan can be summarized this way:

In the middle ages, there was a “Pope Joan,” a woman who hid her gender and rose through the ranks of the Church, became a cardinal and was elected pope. No one knew she was a woman until, during a papal procession through the streets of Rome, she went into labor and gave birth to a child. She and the baby were killed on the spot by the mob, enraged at her imposture.

A lot of things are said about the alleged “Pope Joan.” Depending on who is telling the story, she was a courageous feminist, a clever opportunist, a brilliant scholar who couldn’t make it as a woman in a man’s world. She is said to have been a wise ruler and an astute theologian, though, oddly, no decree or theological teaching purporting to have come from her has made its way down to our day.

In any case, the fact is, there was no Pope Joan. She exists only as pure legend, but one that makes for a sexy story. And when it comes to sexy stories, you know Hollywood will try its hand at making a blockbuster out of this piece of pope fiction.
New Line Cinema (that’s right, the same good folks who produced The Last Temptation of Christ) has reportedly bought the movie rights to Pope Joan, the best-selling 1996 novel by Donna Woolfolk Cross. Her book is couched as an historical “novel” — embellishing on a grand scale the rather sparse details that have clung to the legend of a brilliant, plain girl who rises to the highest levels in Church service, culminating in her being elected pope by an unsuspecting college of cardinals.
The way the book is written and the way it’s being promoted support my concern that it will be seen by most of its historically ignorant re
aders, not as a novel, a fiction, but as a real biography of the one woman who “made it to the top.” When the movie comes out, this problem will certainly grow in proportions.
It’s important to remember that even if there had been a female impostor pope, this would just mean that an invalid election had taken place, nothing more. Other invalidly elected claimants to the papal office have come and gone over the centuries, and the fact that a woman made that list would simply mean that a woman made that list, She would not have been pope – no one invalidly elected would be. And nothing in the Church’s teachings about the papacy would be injured or disproved.
But in reality, the Pope Joan story is all sizzle and no steak. The basic outline of the main legend (actually, there have been several competing legends over the centuries) has it that in the ninth or tenth century, a plain but extraordinarily brilliant young woman contrived to enter the university disguised as a man. Her intellect outstripped her male classmates and she shot to the top rank of students. Talk of her prowess in law, science, rhetoric, philosophy and languages was widespread.
In another legend, popularized by several 13th century works such as the Chronicle of Martin Polonus, theUniversal Chronicle of Metz and Wonders of the City of Rome, she traveled first to Greece with her boyfriend (why he wanted a girlfriend who disguised herself as a man is unknown), made a name for herself in the university there, then traveled to Rome.
Here all the legends converge into the main one that has come down to our day. Once in Rome, Joan managed to enter religious life (although no legend is able to say which order she entered), was ordained a priest and earned a high reputation as a notary in the papal court.
Eventually, she was noticed by the pope and made a cardinal. You can guess what happens next. She is eventually elected pope, takes the name John, and sets about skillfully ruling the Church, It’s at this point that the most dramatic scenes of the story unfold.
The legends vary as to how Joan’s gender and identity were discovered. One holds that she was granted a vision by God in which she was shown two options for her fate, being discovered and disgraced by the world or roasting in hell for her crime. She chose the former. Another version says she got pregnant by one of her curial advisors and somehow was able to maintain the charade until she gave birth to the baby.
At that point her secret was discovered and she was deposed as pope and sent to a convent to do penance for the rest of her life. According to this legend, the child she bore went on to became the bishop of Ostia, about 30 miles southwest of Rome, and when she died, he had her body buried there. Of course, no evidence exists to support this.
The main detail these legends have in common is that Joan was discovered because her hanky panky with a cardinal or secretary resulted in pregnancy, and the childbirth exposed her fraud. The main legend is the most gory on this point. In it, Pope Joan goes into labor while riding in her sede gestiatoria – the portable throne in which popes were carried – as her procession passed the Coliseum on its way from St, Peter’s Basilica to St. John Lateran Cathedral.
The procession halted, the baby was born, and the confused and angry onlookers killed Pope Joan and her baby on the spot. Most accounts say she was killed by stoning, another says she died in childbirth as the mob watching the spectacle shouted and insulted her. Still another says she was dragged to death behind a horse as punishment. Either way, the legends agree that the Romans didn’t appreciate the unpleasant discovery.
Several odd historical details gave weight to the legend, including the fact that among the carved busts of the popes in the cathedral of Sienna was one of an unnamed woman, No one knows who created it or how it was put there, but when Pope Clement VIII (reigned 1592 – 1605) discovered it, he ordered it reworked enough to represent Pope Zacharias, whose image had not previously been included in the collection.
This is not surprising, though, given the wid
espread belief in Europe in the Pope Joan legend during the 13th through 18th centuries. Versions abounded, and many credulous folk, Catholics included, were sincerely convinced that there had indeed been a female pope.
But the facts of history show otherwise. The primary proofs that this is all just a fable are these: First, the earliest point that we can trace the legend to is the mid-13th century, but the legend didn’t really gain wide currency until the late 14th century.
No evidence of any kind exists from the ninth century (when Pope Joan was alleged to have reigned), nor do we see any in the 10th through 12th centuries. None of the annals or acts of the popes that were written between the ninth and 13th centuries (and none after that, either) mention her.
Church historian J. P. Kirsch wrote that “Not one contemporaneous historical source among the papal histories knows anything about her, also, no mention is made of her until the middle of the 13th century. Now it is incredible that the appearance of a ‘popess,’ if it was a historical fact, would be noticed by none of the numerous historians from the 10th to the 13th century.
In the history of the popes, there is no place where this legendary figure will fit in. Between Leo IV and Benedict III, where Martinus Polonus places her, she cannot be inserted . . .”(Article on Pope Joan, Catholic Encyclopedia, 1913).
So where did the legend come from? There are two likely possibilities, The first is that the Roman population became disgusted with the corrupt influence wielded over Pope Sergius (reigned 904-911) by the powerful and wealthy Theodora Theophylact, and more specifically by her young daughter Morozia, a cunning and exceptionally attractive woman. It appears that Morozia was Sergius‘ mistress and bore him at least one son (the future Pope John XI).
The fabulously wealthy and prestigious Theophylact family wielded immense power in Rome during the 10th century, even, sadly, over several popes. This is a sorry episode in the history of the Church, one which displayed a decadence and immorality that even popes, at times, could fall prey to – a reminder to us all that men, even the holiest of men, are not invulnerable to temptation and personal weakness. Despite their sins, Christ’s promise that the Church would be protected from error was not, nor has it ever been, broken.
From the details of Sergius III’s pontificate, it seems clear that he was a vain, violent and sensuous man. It’s quite possible that the disgusted faithful took to mocking him or one of his immediate successors because he was perceived to have been under the influence of the Theophylact women.
Some historians trace the legend of a female pope to Morozia, saying the people called her “Pope Joan” to mock the weak popes she controlled, in the same way some American first ladies have been called “president” to mock their perceived weak husbands.

Another possible explanation for the Pope Joan legend lies in the conduct of the much maligned Pope John VIII (reigned 872-882). He appears to have had a very weak personality, even perhaps somewhat effeminate.

Cardinal Casesare Baronius, in his history Church Annals, suggests that John VIII’s reputation as effeminate gave rise to the legend. Indeed, it would seem that over time, the common folk added ever more lurid embellishments until the vulgar jokes about the hapless (and certainly male) pope ballooned and metamorphosed into a female “popessa.”

— Patrick Madrid, adapted from my book Pope Fiction.


  1. Alan Phipps

    That is interesting; I actually expected this picture to come out in 2008, and I suppose I was rather happy when it didn’t. An interesting account of the legend (one of many, as you note) is recorded by Renaissance author Giovanni Boccaccio in Famous Women. I wrote about it on my blog back in 2007:Pope Joan Movie??

  2. Little Willow

    There’s also a new musical called Pope Joan, currently playing in Los Angeles:http://www.popejoantix.com

  3. LarryD

    I thought Pope Joan was in Erie PA with her order of nuns? ;-)I’m linking to this so that my one or two readers can learn more about this.Thanks for the hard work, Partick.

  4. Kimberly

    Excellent post, Patrick. Thank you for providing a detailed source for future refutations. Looks like I need to pick up a copy of Pope Fiction!

  5. Nzie (theRosyGardener)

    Thanks for the history of it — I just know I’m going to have to debunk this sometime. One other thing I had heard was that, if not created by them, the Pope Joan rumor was circulated by (early militant) Protestants seeking to discredit the Church (as they did by exaggerating the Inquisition (although it wasn’t the nicest thing to begin with)). Do you have any thoughts on that possibility?

  6. Andrea M

    From one of Larry D’s 2 readers:Thanks for bringing this to light, although I shudder to face yet ANOTHER party at the in-laws debunking yet ANOTHER fallacious anti-Catholic movie! Oh well. I have to say, I hope that this venture does not succeed, along with a few other atrocities facing our nation lately…

  7. Anonymous

    Really interesting, thank you for posting it. Now I will be able to defend the Church even more against the "Cafeteria Catholics" who go to my high school.

  8. Carolyn Stone

    This movie will also probably serve as another bad Hollywood "example" of how a pregnancy can really mess things up for a "powerful" woman. It would be nice if there were a three sentence way to debunk this rubbish.

  9. Abacca

    I have no idea whether there ever was a Pope Joan or not. Ninth century Rome is another galaxy, so to speak, a long time ago and far, far away.But given the adventurers, anti-popes, politicos and others who have occupied the sedes sancta, Romae reapse alibique, the possibility that a woman, otherwise pious or not, regardless of heresy or error, may have briefly sat on it, neither adds nor detracts anything except one more layer of folklore and semantic complexity.It is as useless to denounce the legend as it is to use it as a straw whipping-boy to lash in place of the Church.

  10. Patrick Madrid

    Abacca, abusus non tollit usum. Remember that.The fact is, it's always necessary to correct errors like this. As I explain in this chapter of my book, Pope Fiction,"It's important to remember that even if there had been a female impostor pope, this would just mean that an invalid election had taken place, nothing more. Other invalidly elected claimants to the papal office have come and gone over the centuries, and the fact that a woman made that list would simply mean that a woman made that list. She would not have been pope — no one invalidly elected would be. And nothing in the Church's teachings about the papacy would be injured or disproved. This is an important fact for Catholics to keep in mind" (Pope Fiction, page 168).

  11. Mitch

    It doesn't help there are paintings of a woman in the papal tiara and cope in churches in Rome like Santa Maria in Trastevere. Of course in Latin the word for church is ecclesia, which is a feminine noun and given the propensity in southern European art to personify everything… there you go. Just like on the front of the Gesu (main Jesuit Church in Rome) there are statues on the facade of Ignatius and Francis Xavier curb stomping two women. The women are personification of the vices (most of which are feminine nouns).

Leave a Reply

%d bloggers like this: